Back pain can cause problems anywhere from the neck to the tailbone (coccyx). The back includes:
- The bones and joints of the spine (vertebrae).
- The discs that separate the vertebrae and absorb shock as you move.
- The muscles and ligaments that hold the spine together.
Back injuries are the most common cause of back pain Injuries frequently occur when you use your back muscles in activities that you do not do very often, such as lifting a heavy object or doing yard work. Minor injuries also may occur from tripping, falling a short distance, or excessive twisting of the spine. Severe back injuries may result from car accidents, falls from significant heights, direct blows to the back or the top of the head, a high-energy fall onto the buttocks, or a penetrating injury such as a stab wound.
Although back pain is often caused by an injury to one or more of the structures of the back, it may have another cause. Some people are more likely to develop back pain than others. Things that increase your risk for back pain
and injury include getting older, having a family history of back pain, sitting for long periods, lifting or pulling heavy objects, and having a degenerative disease such as osteoporosis.
Low back pain may occur in children and teenagers, but children and teens are less likely to see a doctor for low
back pain. Although most back problems occur in adults ages 20 to 50, back problems in children younger than 20 and adults older than 50 are more likely to have a serious cause.
Sudden (acute) injuries
Pain from an injury may be sudden and severe. Bruising and swelling may develop soon after the injury. Pain from an acute injury usually does not last longer than 6 weeks. Acute injuries include:
An injury to the ligaments or muscles in the back, such as a sprain or a strain.
- A fracture or dislocation of the spine. This can cause a spinal cord injury that may lead to permanent paralysis. It is important to immobilize and transport the injured person correctly to reduce the risk of permanent paralysis.
- A torn or ruptured disc. If the tear is large enough, the jellylike material inside the disc may leak out (herniate) and press against a nerve.
- Compression of nerves in the lower back